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new book

Traps: A New Theory on the Origins of Civilization and Modern Economic and Climate Traps.

Due out in print December 26, 2014

The e-book early-release version is available now for $9.99 (USD): http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00M0ESMWM

Traps examines the trajectory of natural resource use since the last glacial period and then explains how the world can stop using fossil fuels while simultaneously enhancing economic growth.

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Highlighted Research

Convert carbon dioxide (CO2) weight to carbon (C) weight

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CO2/3.67 = C 

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ex: 40 GtCO2 ≈ 10.9 GtC

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1 Gt (Gigatonne) = 1 billion tonnes

1 tonne = 1,000 kg

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Also: 1 Pg = 1 Gt

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1 Pg (Petagram) = 1 quadrillion grams

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Soil specialists tend to use Pg, as they are used to working with gram units per square meter of soil area. Atmospheric specialists tend to use Gt. 


Convert carbon emissions to ppm atmospheric CO2

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GtC/2.12 = ppm

To convert emissions of carbon to atmospheric ppm CO2, carbon sinks must be taken into account. 

So far, terrestrial and oceanic sinks have taken up about 50% of CO2.

source

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ex: 40 GtCO2 emissions ≈ 10.9 GtC

10.9 GtC/2.12 ≈ 5.14 ppm CO2 before accounting for sinks

5.14 ppm CO2 x 0.5 ≈ 2.57 ppm CO2 after accounting for sinks

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